The session addresses the methodological problem of studying the rapid changes in the usage of money, the procedures of payments and the marketization as a consequence of digitisation with a special focus on the distinctions formal/informal and rural/urban in the Global South. It calls for contributions that reveal the methodological challenges of the multiple forms of money usage in empirical studies. Money itself is a paradoxical social institution because it requires the existence of a network of money users, which it generates itself. Therefore, any empirical study of money usage has to deal with the structural element of a network and the individual agency of payment at the same time. The empirical study of money in African contexts revealed a high diversity in its forms and practices, which resulted in a methodological preference for the study of monetary agency. But digitisation, at the latest, brought the importance of structures back on the agenda, as the organisers of the session in their publications on mobile money (S. Maliehe) and consumer credit (J. Schraten) in Southern Africa have shown. The methodological challenge of the structure/agency-distinction in the Global South contexts is increased by two additional and overlapping poles of tension. The well-known distinction between rural and urban social conditions is complicated by the difference between formal and informal economic activity. While the former refers to the qualitative effect of a quantitative population density, the latter addresses the quantitative limitations due to qualitative differences regarding the economies of scale. Digitalisation keeps the promise to solve both. The session invites papers which address the methodological challenges of studying money and payments under the conditions of digitalisation in regard to the tense poles of rural/urban and formal/informal in the Global South.